Law is a set of rules that govern human interactions. It is enforced by governmental institutions, social institutions, and private individuals. In a society, law is used to shape politics, economics, and history.
Law can be made by group legislatures, judges, or executive decrees. Common law legal systems explicitly acknowledge the decisions of a court as “law”.
Typically, courts hear both sides of a controversy in a trial. During a trial, lawyers present evidence to a judge or a jury. The judge determines whether the defendant committed a crime. If a defendant is found guilty, he or she is sentenced to imprisonment, probation, or some other form of penalty.
A court may order a temporary restraining order that halts an act until a hearing can be held. This prevents irreparable damage from occurring.
Legal issues arise from situations like a family problem, a sudden event, a planned event, or a problem at work. They can also involve an unexpected illness.
Some common legal issues include immigration, consumer rights, housing, and debt. Often, a case will begin with a complaint, which is a statement from the plaintiff stating a wrong allegedly committed by the defendant.
During a trial, the judge instructs the jury on the charges. Evidence is then presented orally to the jury. Testimony and interrogatories are part of the discovery process.
After a trial, an appellant may appeal. An appeal is a request for a higher court to review a lower court’s decision. Appeals can be filed for various reasons. For example, if the procedure for filing a motion is not followed, or if a case is based on incorrect evidence.